Blending innovation in healthcare

Blending Innovation modes in healthcareIs there a best innovation mode in healthcare?

Quite often the three modes of innovation – user/producer/collaborative – (1) are seen as substitute instead of complementary strategies. So what should be done according to each innovation mode in the design and provision of a particular product or service? The question is not deciding which is the right mode for our organization but how to manage the blending of the three basic modes of innovation. The convenient interaction among them should maximize the innovation outputs.

Health professionals and patients, despite differences, may be considered individual innovators while the whole health system is in fact a huge collaborative space for innovation. Hospitals and healthcare centres along whit industry behave basically as independent producers in terms of innovation. Read more

Blended innovation: collective/user/producer

Innovation ModesInnovation by individual users and open collaborative innovation increasingly compete with producer (company) innovation in many areas. This is what Baldwin & von Hippel (2010) concluded in their research (1). From one side the change towards individual innovation is facilitated by increasingly digitized production practices and the availability of very low-cost, Internet-based communication. On the other hand the need for collaboration is a consequence of the increasing sophistication and complexity of products and services. Furthermore, acceleration of knowledge production is the direct responsible for the multiplying of innovation opportunities.

The table below summarizes the three modes of innovation… Read more

Co-learning through consensus

co-learning organizationA learning organization is innovative by definition

Learning at individual level has become an available commodity, easier to manage than ever before. Nevertheless the current challenge is learning together. co-learning. The major part of what is made: products, services or tasks, is made collectively. Our environment and values are built collectively as well as workplaces and working rules. Moreover innovation at organizational level is not possible if a kind of co-learning is not happening.

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Healthconsensus on Chronic Care

[p] Monguet, J. M., Trejo, A., Martí, T., Espallargues, M., Serra-Sutton, V., & Escarrabill, J. (2016). Assessment of chronic health care through an Internet consensus tool. Handbook of research on trends in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic conditions, 424-443.

“Health Consensus for the Assessment of Chronic Care Programs” (HC-ACP) is an internet based application created to promote and facilitate the participation of health professionals in the definition of a set of indicators for the assessment of chronic care and management of areas of improvement in this field. The first prototype of the application has been applied twice, first in the region of Catalonia, and in a second project in the context of the whole Spanish Health System. HC-ACP has collected contributions from more than 800 health professionals from around Spain including profiles in the fields of management, health care professional, health planning and quality assessment, allowing sharing and aggregate knowledge and clinical experience from a wide range of points of view.

Besides the relevance and utility of the Health Consensus method, the action-research conducted to build the application proves the efficiency and effectiveness of getting health professionals really involved in the processes of defining the models to assess the healthcare system. The online method proposed has been accepted by participants who have expressed high levels of satisfaction during the participation process. + [Chapter]

Nurse Prescribing Consensus

Nurse prescribing 2015[p] Brugués i Brugués, Alba; Catalan, Arantxa; Jodar, Glòria; Monguet, Josep Maria; and Trejo, Alex (2016) “Consenso online sobre prescripción enfermera entre profesionales de la salud,” Revista de Innovación Sanitaria y Atención Integrada: Vol. 8: Iss. 1, Article 1.

The Online Consensus on nurse prescribing is a model that allows determine, in a health organization, which is the current expectation that diverse health professionals have in relation to the forthcoming regulation of nurse prescribing. The tool has been applied to a group of primary care centers in the southern metropolitan region of Barcelona. Nurses agree but among physicians there isn’t a lot of consensus. The Health Consensus model has been applied in two successive waves with 375 participants. + [Artículo]

Design jobs of the future

conductor huntingmammothsOne of the interesting things about future is that nobody knows exactly how it is going to be, but if you listen to the right people the noise looks like having some sense. This is exactly the feeling with this article from Fast Company.
Bill Buxton (Microsoft Research) proposes a music analogy for the evolution of design. Design has typically been preoccupied with creating new instruments, but besides how wonderful any one of those instruments might be, the true potential is only realized when they play well together—essentially as one. It is the creativity and skill of the conductor that is essential to that happening.The next “big thing” is not a thing. It is a change in the relationship amongst the things. Without the Conductor’s input, we are on a fast path to hitting the complexity barrier, since the cumulative complexity of a bunch of simple things—regardless of how delightful, simple and desirable they may be—will soon exceed the ability of humans to cope. It is the Conductor who carries the responsibility for the design of those relationships and ensuring that their collective value significantly exceeds the sum of their individual values, and their cumulative complexity is significantly less than the sum of their individual complexities.
All other 17 are as interesting as this one.


Why CI is so important?

ILLU-ART-INTELLCO[c] Josep Mª Monguet. Collective intelligence. Summary of the lecture at Innovation Kitchen Barcelona. November 10th 2015.

Collective intelligence (CI) is not new, but like many other areas has gained momentum with technology. CI has been here since the beginning of the times, hunting mammoths for instance was already a CI activity and humans did a lot of creativity improving the hunting tools, and innovation was quite efficient because there are no more mammoths right now.
I do sincerely belief collective Intelligence (CI) is an important driver of the future. Imagine for a moment that some of us might put our brains to work in parallel with a certain level of efficiency. In fact according with the current research, when measuring CI as team performance, it correlates with how well a team works but not with the IQ level of the team members.  There is no doubt that technology will help us to be much more efficient in working together and that artificial intelligence will serve a lot at the service of CI.
This lecture will try to inspire you in relation to CI hidden potentials for intelligence development, understanding intelligence in terms of knowledge production and in its creative or practical life dimensions.  We have not been very well educated in relation to collective activities, nor educated at all about future or about collective action while new capacities and skills in all these areas are going to be key for innovation. We do a lot of teamwork, we play team sports but in general we do not have tools to play as collectives as we have to play as individuals.

CI examples.

Francis Galton, a multifaceted scientist from the XIX century, attended once a farmers’ fair, where one of the activities consisted of trying to guess the weight of an ox. Around 800 people participated in the contest and wrote their guesses on tickets. The person who guessed closest to the weight of the ox won the prize. After the contest Francis Galton took the 800 tickets and did some statistics. He discovered that the average guess of “all the entrants” was remarkably close to the actual weight of the ox. This collective guess was not only better than the actual winner of the contest but also better than the guesses made by cattle experts at the fair.

A domestic simple example of CI is “Who wants to be a millionaire”, a contest in which sometimes the player can ask the audience (the joker card). Each member of the audience makes an individual vote for one of the answers. The votes are collected and the results are displayed. If a particular answer gets a lot of votes, the player generally goes along with it, and in 95% of the cases it is correct.

Juries verdicts may be considered a relevant case of CI. The jury is at the frontier of another concept known, from a long time ago, as “Collective Wisdom”. If CI is related with human knowledge, collective wisdom might be related with human values. The problem is that according to research juries are wrong in one out of eighth cases.

A case that someone could typify as a bit worrying is the “Good Judgement Project” aimed to find new approaches to political forecasting. Hundreds of questions related to geopolitics were sent to thousands of participants to evaluate their forecasting capacity. This served to select the top 2%, so called super forecasters, able to be quite accurate in guessing about world events evolution.

Practical work

Acting in an intelligent way collectively may be done through different strategies and particularly using Internet tools. In this session we will propose the use of two different internet tools that may be categorised in the field of collective intelligence. Tools are creations of Onsanity. www.onsanity,com

1. Team Equilibrium

Register, login and just follow the instructions. Once you get your profile please invite members of your team to compare individual differences and discuss the profile of the group. This exercise is intended at promoting consciousness and implications of team profile.

2. 2050 Lab   /Ask for nominal participation. Contact

For more information visit:

I propose to participate in a collective intelligence tool to develop our intuition about the future. Nobody knows what is going to happen in the future but if we could combine the intuitions of the right people, people with a balanced combination of creativity, rationality, knowledge and experience, their collective intuition could be a fine approach to the trends of the future.

The tool consists of a Real Time Delphi system that allows getting consensus about a particular model of the future. In this case the model is about knowledge and academy in 2050.

Once the model is discussed and agreed upon, participants start the process of responding to the questions they are asked. As soon as a participant answers a question, an instant representation of all of the participants aggregated results is displayed next to the answer. This way, the participant may ponder the answer against the crowds answer through centrality (mean or median) and dispersion scores (standard deviation or interquartile range) and decide whether or not to change his or her opinion. As it is allowed to change answers to facilitate agreement, it’s easy at the end see which components of the model have gained a strong consensus and where weak agreements have been found.

(image source : Pink Sherbet Photography on Flickr)

Ideas | PCBT

The Personal Creativity Benchmark Test (PCBT) is intended to help understanding and improving creativity.
Besides creativity is often confused with artistic talent, there is no a current measure of creativity, so it’s not easy to say if anyone is less or more creative.
There are different forms of creativity and all are about finding new solutions to problems, and identifying opportunities to improve the way things are done.
The difference between creative and non-creative people may be partly related with creativity perception. Creative people might see themselves as creative and feel free to create, while non-creative people simply do not think about creativity and perhaps restrict unconsciously their flow of ideas.
The central idea of this Personal Creativity Benchmark Test (PCBT) is that anyone can be creative, just by having the adequate mind-set and use the right tools. So PCBT goal is not to calculate your level of creativity but to help you to reflect about your current disposal to creativity and to discover misconceptions that could limit your creativity. +

The participation process consists of three steps:
1. Taking the Initial PCBT | Calculation Tool
2. Enrolling in a seminar about innovation.
3. Passing the Final PCBT.
To participate in the validation process contact

A short introduction to creativity

Sense nomJosep Mª Monguet. UPC.  Lecture October 30th 2015. Universitas Telefonica, La Roca del Vallès

Access to presentation

According to an IBM survey of 2012 creativity is the most important skill quality for leadership. There is an interesting study just published this year linking Porter industry clusters and Florida creative professionals approach. In this study, authors propose 4 categories combining in a 2×2 matrix, cluster and occupation categories. With data from 2012 they analysed the salaries in US. Looking at the salary differences, depending on the position in the matrix, few words are needed.

In a short presentation of creativity it’s necessary to mention at least: how and why ideas are bornt, future, people and how creativity is facilitated. Ideas are in the future and so far are the result of human activity through a kind of process.

– Ideas arise as consequence of a need or a problem that has been identified
– The production of ideas is related with the high level of thinking.
– Ideas are enriched when sharing, but later ideas have to be implemented and then collaboration is necessary.
– There are many strategies and techniques for the production of ideas, the more known, although many times not well applied, is Brainstorming.TRIM is a completely different approach based on a matrix that confronts all aspects of a product design among them.
– Ideas will live in the future. We look at the future using projections of available data. Besides rational forecasting, there are unexpected situations that combined with predictions allows to imagine scenarios.
– Finally creativity involves people, obvious. Ideas for the future are proposed, assessed and implemented by people.

Creative collective at Cirque du Soleil

cirque du soleilBoris Vekhovsky’s shares his experience at Cirque du Soleil in managing creative collaborative strategies, addressing one of the major issues for contemporary organizations – the transformation of a diversified collective of creative people into a performing creative collective. Creativity is not the exclusive privilege of a unique talented creator, but often needs a creativity leader to manage ideas coming from many different stakeholders in the creative venture, and “the key role of the creativity leader is to favour the expression of ideas by setting up a context of openness and respect, but also to sponsor and conduct discussions and debates about the creative and performing value of ideas. The creative leader is looking for the mobilization of diverse types of expertise in the evaluation of idea, and in complementing the idea with specific operational expertise. This challenge requires a complex balance of humbleness and authority. Humbleness plays an important role in being able to express and share half-baked insights, to play with them collectively in order to consolidate them, make them evolve, or discard them. Managing humbleness also means focusing on the attitude of people, being a role model in terms of listening and respectfully challenging an idea without invalidating the person expressing it”.

Setting the Stage for Collaborative Creative Leadership at Cirque du Soleil. Laurent Simon. Technology Innovation Management Review. July 2015. Link

Is creativity the driver of innovation?

porter florida marriage

Competitiveness Review published an interesting paper that “marries” Porter’s “traded clusters” concept with Florida’s perspective of “creative class”. Although the goodness of the combination may be obvious it results particularly illustrating the research approach.

Combining the two lenses, industry and occupation, researchers identifies four major industrial- occupational categories: Creative-in-traded, creative-in-local, routine-in-traded and routine-in-local. Economic growth and development is positively related to employment in the creative-in-traded category.

Creativity, clusters and the competitive advantage of cities. Roger Martin, Richard Florida, Melissa Pogue & Charlotta Mellander. Competitiveness Review. Vol. 25, 2015. pp. 482-496 Link

Collective decision-making in mammography screening

mammaThe application of Collective Intelligence (CI) strategies may increase accuracy in medical decision-making. A study consisting in the application of CI techniques to mammography screening, allowed the aggregation of independent assessments of multiple radiologists into a single decision. Researchers found that, compared to single radiologists, CI rules application increased true positives (i.e., recalls of patients with cancer) and decreases false positives (i.e., recalls of patients without cancer). Moreover according with the study, CI-rules systematically outperform even the best-performing individual radiologist in the respective group.

Collective Intelligence techniques can be used to improve medical decision-making in a wider range of contexts, including many areas of diagnostic imaging and, more generally, diagnostic decisions that are based on the subjective interpretation of evidence.

Collective Intelligence Meets Medical Decision-Making. The Collective Outperforms the Best Radiologist. Max Wolf, Jens Krause, Patricia A. Carney, Andy Bogart, Ralf H. Kurvers. PLOS ONE, v. 10, no. 8, Aug. 2015, p. 1-10. +

Measure of “Collective Intelligence”

c factorIn two studies with 699 people, working in groups of two to five, researchers found converging evidence of a general “collective intelligence” factor that explains a group’s performance on a wide variety of tasks. This “c factor” is not strongly correlated with the individual intelligence of group members but is correlated with the average social sensitivity of group members, the equality in distribution of conversational turn-taking, and the proportion of females in the group. According to authors “These findings raise many additional questions. For example, could a short collective intelligence test predict a sales team’s or a top management team’s long-term effectiveness?… Could a group’s collective intelligence be increased by, for example, better electronic collaboration tools?

Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups.  Anita Williams Woolley Christopher F. Chabris Alex Pentland Nada Hashmi Thomas Malone. Science, October 2010. Vol. 330 no. 6004 pp. 686-688 Link

Future | Bibliography

[B] Scenario planning: A field guide to the future
Wade, W. (2012). John Wiley & Sons.
A field guide to identify trends that could affect the environment in which we work. It shows how to create plausible scenarios based on uncertainties, and how to describe the evolution from where we are now, to where the scenarios could lead us in the future. +

[B] The future of the mind: The scientific quest to understand, enhance, and empower the mind
Kaku, M. (2015). Anchor Books.
The latest advances in neuroscience and physics reveal a path that, although in the field of research, is full of surprises: telepathy, mental control, avatars, telekinesis, recording of memories and dreams, projecting thoughts and emotions, anong others. But what is interesting is not so much where we will be, but what will be discovered along the way. +

[B] The fourth industrial revolution
Schwab, K. (2017). Crown Business.
Schwab, founder and executive chair of the World Economic Forum, forecasts a fourth industrial revolution. Technologies will impact on all disciplines, economies and industries at an unprecedented pace. +

[n] Design jobs of the future
Labarre, S. (2016)
One of the interesting things about future is that nobody knows exactly how it is going to be, but if you listen to the right people the noise looks like having some sense. This is exactly the feeling with this article from Fast Company +

Ideas | Bibliography

[B] Creative confidence: Unleashing the creative potential within us all
Kelley, D., & Kelley, T. (2013). Crown Pub.
Two of the most prominent experts in innovation, design and creativity show us that each and every one of us is creative. This is an entertaining and inspirational text based on their IDEO experience. +

[p] Creativity and mental illness: 40-year prospective total population study
Kyaga, S., Landén, M., Boman, M., Hultman, C. M., Långström, N., & Lichtenstein, P. (2013). Journal of psychiatric research47(1).
Tracking more than 1 million anonymous patients and their relatives, from Swedish population, confirmed that certain mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, is more prevalent in the group of people with artistic or scientific professions +

[nCreative patients
MIT student beating cancer through new ways of 3D scanning a body part and using that model to study pre-surgery”… +
A strategy combining medical advice, art, music & emotional support from more than half a million people… +

MIT student beating cancer

Sense nomMIT student beats cancer sharing his data and experience with digital models and 3D prints.
3D printing technologies are making it easier and faster for medical professionals to study pre-surgery.

Steven Keating, a 26-year old doctoral student at Boston’s MIT Media Lab had a brain scan done when he was 18 out of curiosity.  The scan revealed a slight abnormality but he was nothing to worry about, he was told.  After having some issues with his smelling abilities – “sniff seizures” – he went in to have an M.R.I done by surgeons at MIT..  What they found was devastating: a cancerous tumor the size of a tennis ball in his brain. Three weeks later, Keating underwent a 10-hour surgery at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston accompanied by his friends and family.  The surgery was performed by neurosurgeon E. Antonio Chiocca, and although Keating was sedated, he was kept awake while the tumor was removed to ensure that doctor’s weren’t damaging the language center in his brain.

Throughout the diagnosis and shortly after, Keating worked as hard as he could to obtain all of his medical information – an estimated 70 gigabytes – in an effort to better understand his condition. As a member of MIT Media Lab’s Mediated Matter Group alongside 3D printing renegade Neri Oxman and mechanical engineer David Wallace, Keating’s own interest as a student in both mechanical engineering and synthetic biology naturally led him to look deeper into new ways of visualizing his condition and sharing it with others as open source data.

Chance discovery of a mammoth

Michigan mammoth

A farmer from  Michigan discovered a mammoth in his fields. The discovery  can help date the arrival of humans in North America. The team’s working hypothesis is that ancient humans placed the mammoth remains in a pond for storage. The researchers also recovered a small stone flake that may have been used as a cutting tool next to one of the tusks. And the neck vertebrae were not scattered randomly, as is normally the case following a natural death, but were arrayed in their correct anatomical sequence, as if someone had “chopped a big chunk out of the body and placed it in the pond for storage,”

Salvatore Iaoconesi

Sense nomSalvatore Iaconesi, diagnosed with brain cancer, instead of becoming a passive and defeated patient took the cancer as a “life motive” for its creativity. He asked doctors his brain scans, posted them online, and invited a global community to pitch in on the blog “La cura”. He took a strategy combining medical advice, art, music & emotional support from more than half a million people.
The attitude of Salvatore Iaconesi is an impressive and commited example of creativity. Artist, interaction designer and professor of Digital Design at Rome’s University “La Sapienza”, among many other activities, is sharing his experience on Ted Talks.

What happened when I open-sourced my brain cancer

The case of Iaconesi takes us back to the works of Frida Kahlo, related and conditioned by the polio she had at the age of 6 and the accident she suffered in a bus while a teenager. The Broken Column, Without Hope, Memories, The Two Fridas and many others are a demonstration of continuous and energetic creativity emerging from her suffering.

Collective Innovation & Design

Research supports the design, development and validation of tools and methods for Collective Innovation. The field work is focussed on health and welfare.

  • TeamEquilibrium  is a tool to manage the intelligence of innovative teams to become more efficient and effective.
  • Surbees is an innovation Diagnostic, designed to help organisations to manage  and evolve their innovative capacities.
  • SmartDelphi is a digitaly enhanced Delphi tool to facilitate participative processes.
  • PINNTS is a project based training program created to foster innovation skills in a health coLearning environment.
  • Excelnets is a methodology to support health professionals in collaborative processes of innovation and research.

CI 2015

This year collective Intelligence conference took place in California, and was organised by the University of Michigan. We made two contributions:
– Consenting Non-Technical Skills in Chronic Care Healthcare Professionals: Applying Health Consensus in Collective Self-Assessment
– Geospatial System of Collective Intelligence: A Technological Application for the Interdisciplinary Study of the Geographical Space Complexity. (Poster)