Innovation by individual users and open collaborative innovation increasingly compete with producer (company) innovation in many areas. This is what Baldwin & von Hippel (2010) concluded in their research (1). From one side the change towards individual innovation is facilitated by increasingly digitized production practices and the availability of very low-cost, Internet-based communication. On the other hand the need for collaboration is a consequence of the increasing sophistication and complexity of products and services. Furthermore, acceleration of knowledge production is the direct responsible for the multiplying of innovation opportunities.
The table below summarizes the three modes of innovation… Read more